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New Energy Car Fire Analysis of Battery Li ion

Shenzhen Sinoli Electronic Co.,Ltd | Updated: Oct 06, 2018

New Energy Car Fire Analysis of Battery Li ion


According to incomplete statistics, there have been more than a dozen electric vehicle fire accidents recently, involving passenger cars, passenger cars and other fields. Frequent fire accidents push electric vehicles to the top of the tuyere, leaving the impression that electric vehicles are not safe. The main culprit behind the accident, mostly pointed to the power battery, a time of discussion about battery safety caused widespread concern.


The fuel car is also self ignite, and the ignition is not the original sin of battery.


In fact, the summer is the high incidence of automotive spontaneous combustion, this problem is not limited to electric vehicles, the report on the spontaneous combustion of fuel vehicles and other accidents is not uncommon, but electric vehicles are new things and more attention, electric cars on fire is not necessarily all the "original sin" of batteries.


For example, since this year, South Korea has occurred 30 BMW spontaneous combustion incidents, especially since the summer, the related fire accidents are more frequent, only since July occurred more than 10 spontaneous combustion. In South Korea alone, BMW has recalled 100,000 vehicles for the "engine self-ignition" incident, and since last year, BMW has recalled more than a million vehicles in Europe and the United States, in large part because of the hidden danger of engine fire.


Electric vehicles are safer than fuel cars when fire occurs. First of all, there is a certain gap between the two detonation time, fuel vehicles will explode instantaneously, and electric vehicles have a reaction process, from fire to explosion has a certain time, can be reserved for the owner of a certain escape time, such as Tesla is 8 minutes, Wima car is 10 minutes.


In addition, electric vehicles through advanced sensor technology and mobile communication technology, in the beginning of a chemical reaction in the battery, the danger of early warning to the owner, the owner can have enough time to stay away from the electric vehicle is about to start.


Tracing the cause of electric vehicle ignition


Speaking back to the electric vehicle fire accident, it is generally divided into several scenarios, such as charging burning, battery running or placing burning, collision burning or wading burning, the first of which is the most common. Battery safety can be boiled down to thermal runaway, in other words, beyond a certain critical point, the temperature rises uncontrollably in a straight line until the final combustion and explosion. Overcharge, overheating, short circuit, collision and other factors are the key factors leading to the thermal runaway of batteries.


In addition to the collision ignition, if the natural state of fire, it should be the battery itself or the whole system problem, because a strong impact on the fuel vehicle also has the possibility of explosion. As far as the battery itself is concerned, there may be the following problems:



Battery quality problem


Ouyang Minggao, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, believes that the main cause of the recent electric vehicle fire is product quality problems, mainly due to insufficient testing and verification of battery products, deterioration of reliability in the aging process of vehicles, low level of charging safety management technology, and some products in the design and verification of the use process is not rigorous. Compliance with relevant technical standards and norms and other factors.


The industry does exist in the car factory to reduce costs, battery manufacturers in order to maintain profits, jerry-building, in the absence of sufficient verification of the situation on the bulk supply.



Battery chemistry


The internal resistance of the battery will also heat up. At a certain temperature, the oxidant on the cathode reacts with the electrolyte, which is made up of organic solvents and is no less flammable than gasoline. A large number of chemical reaction heat will cause thermal runaway, produce a large number of gases, and then lead to high pressure, battery rupture, and then vehicle combustion, explosion.


The battery will lead to lithium decomposition at low temperature, fast charge and over charge. Lithium dendrites grow continuously until they pierce the battery diaphragm and cause short circuit, which leads to positive and negative contact, rapid accumulation of heat, leading to the battery wrapped in fire.



Battery production process


Battery material, diaphragm, binder, structure, sealing, production technology, production process control and other factors, will cause car fire.


For example, the material in the core is not pure enough, and there are too many impurities. In the manufacturing process, if impurities are mixed into the battery, impurities may break through the diaphragm during the charging process, resulting in partial short circuit of the battery, causing spontaneous combustion.


there are many reasons to control the fire spontaneously smoke, but the most of all, is manufacturer should take well verifications and test to prove the car is safe to use, and even give user manual if some circumstance is not available to operate the car either charging or discharging.